What is Chinese Tofu: Comprehensive Guide to its Types and Uses

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Chinese tofu, also known as bean curd, is a staple ingredient in Chinese cuisine and has been enjoyed for centuries. Made from soybeans, this versatile protein source can be used in a variety of dishes and prepared in many different ways. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at Chinese tofu, its history, and how it’s used in traditional Chinese cooking.

what is chinese tofu

What Is Chinese Tofu

Chinese tofu, also known as bean curd, is a versatile and nutritious food made from soybeans. It has been a staple in Chinese cuisine for thousands of years and is enjoyed for its high protein, low fat, and rich calcium and iron content. To create tofu, soybeans are first ground with water and then heated to extract soy milk. This milk provides the base for the tofu-making process.

Soy milk is a crucial ingredient in creating this unique food product. The introduction of a coagulant or curdling agent, such as calcium or magnesium salt, to the soy milk results in the formation of curd-like solids. These curds are then pressed and compacted into various shapes and sizes, depending on the desired type of tofu.

Tofu comes in several varieties and degrees of firmness, which are determined by the coagulant used and the amount applied during the production process. Some common types of tofu include:

  • Silken tofu: This soft and delicate variety is perfect for blending into smoothies or as a base for sauces and dips.
  • Soft tofu: With a slightly firmer texture than silken, soft tofu can be crumbled and used in dishes like soups, stews, and scrambled tofu.
  • Firm tofu: This popular type offers more structure, making it ideal for stir-frying, grilling, or baking.
  • Extra-firm tofu: As the densest and most robust variety, it retains its shape and is great for frying, grilling, and other high-heat cooking methods.

One of the remarkable qualities of tofu is its ability to absorb flavors from spices, sauces, and marinades. This characteristic allows it to be a versatile ingredient in a wide range of recipes, from savory dishes to sweet desserts.

In Chinese cuisine, tofu is used in various ways, including stir-fries, stews, soups, and even as a filling for dumplings. Additionally, it can be prepared in other forms, such as fermented, pickled, or smoked. The diversity and adaptability of this ingredient make it a must-have in any kitchen, particularly for those seeking plant-based, high-protein alternatives to meat and dairy products.

Types and Textures of Tofu

Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a versatile and nutritious food that originates from China. Although it might appear simple, tofu actually comes in a variety of types and textures, each suited for different culinary applications. This section will explore three primary types of tofu: silken tofu, firm tofu, and dried tofu.

Silken Tofu

Silken tofu is characterized by its smooth, creamy texture and high water content. It’s not pressed, which allows it to retain a silky consistency that’s perfect for blending and puréeing. You might find silken tofu in various degrees of firmness, but all types share the same delicate nature. This type of tofu is excellent for making vegan desserts, smoothies, and sauces, as it can be easily transformed into a creamy consistency (source).

  • Applications: vegan desserts, smoothies, sauces
  • Texture: smooth, creamy, delicate

Firm Tofu

Firm tofu is denser and has a lower water content than silken tofu. It’s obtained by pressing the curds to extract excess liquid, resulting in a robust texture that holds its shape well during cooking. This makes firm tofu ideal for stir-fries, grilling, pan-frying, or slicing and using in sandwich fillings (source). Thanks to its ability to absorb flavors from marinades and seasonings, firm tofu is a versatile ingredient in a variety of dishes.

  • Applications: stir-fries, grilling, pan-frying, sandwiches
  • Texture: dense, robust, good shape retention

Dried Tofu

Dried tofu is simply tofu that has been dehydrated to remove most of its moisture content. This processing method results in a chewy, meaty texture that can be rehydrated by soaking in water or broth before cooking. Dried tofu is often used in Chinese cuisine, where it might be sliced into thin strips and added to soups or stir-fries for a toothsome, protein-rich ingredient. Due to its concentrated flavors and texture, dried tofu is an excellent option for adding depth to a variety of dishes.

  • Applications: soups, stir-fries, braised dishes
  • Texture: chewy, meaty, rehydratable

In summary, tofu is a versatile and nutritious ingredient with various types and textures to suit an array of culinary applications. From the smooth, creamy silken tofu used in desserts and smoothies, to the robust firm tofu perfect for stir-fries, and the chewy, meaty dried tofu, there’s a type of tofu for everyone’s taste and preferences.

Production and Ingredients

Chinese tofu, also known as bean curd, is a soft and relatively flavorless food product made from soybeans. It has been an essential source of protein in Chinese cuisine since the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) source. The process of making tofu involves three main stages: soy milk extraction, coagulation and curdling, and molding and pressing.

Soy Milk Extraction

The first step in producing tofu is extracting soy milk from soybeans. Soybeans are soaked in water, allowing them to soften and expand. Once they’re ready, they’re ground and boiled to create soy milk. Some manufacturers prefer to use fresh soybeans, while others use dried soybeans source.

Coagulation and Curdling

The next step involves adding a coagulant to the soy milk, which helps curdle and solidify the mixture. Nigari (magnesium chloride) or gypsum (calcium sulfate) are common coagulants used in tofu production source. These coagulants not only help create the desired texture, but they also add essential nutrients like calcium and iron to the final product.

  1. Nigari: This coagulant is a mineral-rich substance derived from seawater. It is the traditional Chinese method of making tofu, and it results in tofu with a slightly bitter taste and a more tender texture source.
  2. Gypsum: Gypsum, or calcium sulfate, is another coagulant used in tofu production. It produces a firmer tofu with a more neutral taste. It also provides a good source of calcium, which is an essential nutrient for maintaining strong bones and teeth.

Molding and Pressing

The final stage in tofu production is the molding and pressing process. The curdled soy mixture is placed into molds and then pressed gently to remove excess liquid. Depending on the desired firmness, the pressure and duration of pressing may vary. There are several types of tofu, ranging from silken to super firm source.

  • Silken Tofu: Made with minimal pressure, silken tofu has a creamy, custard-like texture. It is particularly suitable for making smoothies or desserts.
  • Soft Tofu: This type of tofu has a slightly firmer texture than silken tofu but is still very tender. It works well in soups and delicate dishes.
  • Firm Tofu: Firm tofu is denser and firmer than soft tofu. It’s versatile and can be used in stir-fries, soups, and a variety of other dishes.
  • Extra Firm Tofu: As the name suggests, extra firm tofu has an even denser texture. It is ideal for grilling, frying, or baking because it holds its shape well during cooking.

In conclusion, Chinese tofu is a popular, versatile, and nutritious food made from soy milk, coagulants, and different molding and pressing techniques. With its protein and essential nutrients like calcium and iron, tofu remains an essential staple in various Asian cuisines.

Popular Chinese Tofu Dishes

Chinese tofu dishes are a staple in many Chinese and Asian cuisines. Tofu, made from soybean curds, is a versatile and nutrient-rich ingredient that is often used in a wide range of dishes. This section highlights four popular Chinese tofu dishes: Mapo Tofu, Stinky Tofu, Kung Pao Tofu, and Dongpo Tofu.

Mapo Tofu

Mapo Tofu is a popular Sichuan dish known for its bold flavors and rich, spicy sauce. It typically consists of soft tofu cooked with minced meat, such as pork or beef, and seasoned with Sichuan peppercorns, garlic, ginger, and fermented bean paste. The dish is served hot and pairs well with steamed rice. Mapo Tofu is a must-try for anyone who loves spicy, flavorful Chinese cuisine.

Stinky Tofu

Stinky Tofu is a unique and somewhat adventurous Chinese dish that, as the name suggests, has a strong, pungent smell. It is typically a fermented tofu that has been marinated for an extended period in a mixture of fermented milk, vegetables, and meat. The final product is then deep-fried or steamed and served with spicy or sweet dipping sauces. The taste of Stinky Tofu is often considered an acquired taste, but it is a beloved dish by many who enjoy its unique flavor combinations.

Kung Pao Tofu

Kung Pao Tofu is a delicious vegetarian alternative to the traditional Kung Pao Chicken dish. This dish features cubed tofu stir-fried with a mixture of vegetables, such as bell peppers, onions, and zucchini, and seasoned with garlic, ginger, soy sauce, and a spicy chili sauce. Roasted peanuts are often added to the dish for extra crunch and flavor. Kung Pao Tofu is an excellent option for those who enjoy spicy tofu dishes with a hint of sweetness.

Dongpo Tofu

Dongpo Tofu is a famed Chinese tofu dish that originates from the Sichuan province. It is named after the famous Chinese poet and gastronome, Su Dongpo. The dish features thick slices of tofu that are first deep-fried and then braised in a rich sauce made with soy sauce, sugar, and various aromatics such as ginger, garlic, and star anise. The result is a tender, flavorful tofu dish with a mildly sweet and savory taste.

In conclusion, the Chinese cuisine offers a diverse range of tofu dishes to cater to various tastes and preferences. These four popular dishes—Mapo Tofu, Stinky Tofu, Kung Pao Tofu, and Dongpo Tofu—showcase the versatility of tofu and the unique flavors and techniques employed in Chinese cooking.

Regional Variations of Tofu

Anhui Province

In Anhui Province, tofu is an essential part of the regional cuisine, which features simple yet hearty dishes cooked using time-honored techniques like stir-frying, braising, and stewing. Anhui tofu dishes often incorporate local vegetables, spices, and herbs, creating a distinctive flavor profile that reflects the region’s agricultural heritage.

One popular dish in Anhui Province is the “Hairy Tofu” (毛豆腐), which gets its name from the mold that grows on the surface of the tofu as it ferments. This fermentation process imparts a unique, pungent flavor to the tofu, and it is typically served deep-fried or braised with vegetables.

Shouxian County

Shouxian County, located in the Anhui Province, is known for its traditional tofu-making techniques, resulting in a wide range of tofu varieties. The local tofu artisans use stone grinders to process the soybeans, producing exceptionally smooth and fine-textured tofu products.

A standout tofu dish from Shouxian County is the “Tofu Noodles” (豆腐丝), which are made by slicing extra-firm tofu into thin strips to resemble noodles. These “noodles” can be stir-fried with vegetables and seasonings or served cold in a salad, offering a refreshing, low-carb alternative to traditional wheat-based noodles.


Suzhou, a city in China’s Jiangsu province, has its own unique approach to tofu dishes that incorporate the area’s fresh produce and delicate culinary techniques. Suzhou tofu is characterized by its refined texture and delicate flavors, with sweet, savory, and umami notes all playing a role.

One of Suzhou’s most famous tofu dishes is “Toon Bud Tofu” (香椿头豆腐), which combines tender cubes of tofu with delicate toon buds, a type of Chinese vegetable with a mildly spicy flavor. This dish is often served with rice and showcases the harmonious combination of flavors and textures that Suzhou cuisine is known for.

In conclusion, regional variations of tofu in China reflect the rich and diverse culinary heritage of this vast country. The unique tofu dishes of Anhui Province, Shouxian County, and Suzhou illustrate how ingredients, techniques, and food traditions come together to create distinctive regional specialties.

Fermented and Flavored Tofu

Fermented Tofu

Fermented tofu, also known as 腐乳 (fu ru), is a traditional and popular Chinese condiment made from fresh bean curd, salt, rice wine, and various other flavorings. It comes in several types, including white fermented tofu (白腐乳) and red fermented tofu (红腐乳) among others source. The red fermented tofu, 南乳 (nánrǔ), is characterized by a striking deep red hue, achieved by tinting it with red yeast rice (红曲米,hóngqūmī) and a slightly funkier, sweeter taste. Additionally, sesame oil fermented tofu (麻油腐乳, máyóu fǔrǔ) is brined with sesame oil, giving it a nutty fragrance source.

Fermented tofu is packed with umami flavors and, compared to fresh tofu, its protein content is twice as high, making it easier to digest and absorb. It is often referred to as “oriental cheese” source.

Marinated Tofu

Marinated tofu is tofu that has been soaked in a flavorful mixture of spices, herbs, and liquids such as soy sauce, vinegar, or oil. The marinade allows the tofu to absorb the flavors, enhancing its taste and texture. A wide variety of marinades can be used, depending on personal preference and regional cuisine.

Common marinades include:

  • Soy sauce-based marinades with added ginger, garlic, and scallions
  • Sweet and spicy marinades with chili sauce and honey or sugar
  • Fruit-based marinades using citrus juices or fruit purees

The marinated tofu is then typically pan-fried, baked, or grilled to further develop its flavor and create a crisp, golden exterior.

Tofu Pudding

Tofu pudding, also known as 豆腐花 (dòufuhuā) or 豆花 (dòuhuā), is a delicate and smooth dessert made from very soft, silky tofu. The process involves coagulating soy milk with a traditional agent such as gypsum (calcium sulfate) or a modern agent like glucono delta-lactone to create a tender texture source. The tofu is then served in a sweet syrup made with ingredients such as ginger, brown sugar, or osmanthus flowers.

Tofu pudding is popular across China and other parts of Asia, with regional variations in taste and preparation. In some places, it is served as a savory dish with toppings like chili oil, soy sauce, or pickled vegetables.

In conclusion, fermented and flavored tofu offers a flavorful and diverse range of dishes and condiments, from umami-rich fermented tofu to tangy marinated tofu and delicate tofu pudding. These variations showcase the versatility and adaptability of tofu in Chinese cuisine.

Tofu in Soups and Vegetarian Dishes

Chinese tofu, also known as bean curd or soybean curd, is a popular ingredient in a variety of soups and vegetarian dishes. It’s made from soy milk that’s coagulated and then pressed to form blocks. Chinese tofu comes in different textures — silken (soft), firm, and extra-firm — offering versatility in cooking.

Hot and Sour Soup

Hot and sour soup is a popular Chinese dish with a spicy and tangy profile.


  • Tofu
  • Vegetable broth
  • Soy sauce
  • White vinegar
  • Chili paste
  • Shiitake mushrooms
  • Bamboo shoots
  • Cornstarch
  • Green onions
  • Sesame oil
  • White pepper

Tofu is a star player in this soup, providing a silky yet meaty texture that complements the other ingredients. Silken tofu is often used in hot and sour soup for its tender consistency. Tofu cubes are simmered in the broth with mushrooms and bamboo shoots, absorbing flavors from soy sauce, white vinegar, and chili paste. Green onions, sesame oil, and white pepper finish the dish with a satisfying aromatic kick.

Vegetarian Mapo Tofu

Mapo tofu is a Szechuan dish traditionally made with ground pork; however, a vegetarian variant exists that replaces meat with additional plant-based ingredients.


  • Tofu
  • Szechuan peppercorns
  • Chili bean paste
  • Soy sauce
  • Vegetable stock
  • Garlic
  • Ginger
  • Green onions
  • Cornstarch
  • Sugar
  • Vegetarian ground meat substitute (optional)

Vegetarian Mapo Tofu utilizes firm or extra-firm tofu for a more substantial texture. The tofu is pan-fried with fragrant spices, such as Szechuan peppercorns and chili bean paste, creating a flavorful sauce with a spicy, numbing sensation. Soy sauce, vegetable stock, garlic, ginger, and green onions enhance the savory taste of the dish. Cornstarch is used to thicken the sauce, while a touch of sugar balances the heat. Vegetarian ground meat substitutes can be added for extra protein and texture if desired.

Chinese tofu’s versatility makes it a go-to ingredient for soups and vegetarian dishes, adding satisfying plant-based protein to different recipes. Its capacity to absorb flavors from surrounding ingredients makes it a delicious and adaptable option for both traditional and innovative dishes.

History and Cultural Significance

Western Han Dynasty

Chinese tofu is believed to have originated during the Western Han Dynasty. Liu An, a well-known figure in ancient China, is often credited with the invention of tofu. He was seeking the secret to immortality and stumbled upon tofu while experimenting with soybeans. Although it didn’t yield the eternal life he was seeking, tofu quickly became a staple food in Chinese culture due to its nutritional value and versatility. Gypsum, a naturally occurring mineral, was used as a coagulant to solidify soy milk into tofu during this period.

Song Dynasty

In the Song Dynasty, tofu gained even more popularity and its production methods were refined. A famous poet and gastronome, Su Dongpo, was known for his love of tofu and often mentioned it in his literary works. By this time, tofu had become a significant part of Chinese cuisine and culture, with many different varieties and preparation methods emerging. Some of the most common tofu dishes during the Song Dynasty included steamed tofu, deep-fried tofu, and tofu-vegetable stir-fries.

  • Steamed Tofu: Soft tofu steamed to perfection and often seasoned with soy sauce or other flavorful sauces.
  • Deep-Fried Tofu: Firm or extra-firm tofu cut into small pieces and deep-fried until golden and crispy.
  • Tofu-Vegetable Stir-Fries: Tofu cooked together with a variety of vegetables, often seasoned with Chinese spices and sauces.

Qing Dynasty

Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty also played a significant role in the promotion of tofu. He was known to be a great advocate for this versatile food, offering it to his guests during banquets and encouraging its consumption in the general population. Tofu’s prominence in Chinese cuisine continued to rise during the Qing Dynasty, with various regional specialties developing throughout the country.

In conclusion, Chinese tofu has had a long and fascinating history, deeply intertwined with Chinese culture itself. From its possible origins during the Western Han Dynasty, to its popularization in the Song and Qing Dynasties, tofu has become an integral part of Chinese cuisine and a beloved food enjoyed by people across the globe.

Tofu Legends and Folklore

Xi Shi

There is a famous story about a beautiful woman named Xi Shi who lived during the Spring and Autumn Period in ancient China. As legend has it, she was renowned for her extraordinary beauty and was one of the Four Beauties of Ancients China. One day, Xi Shi discovered that when she ate tofu, her skin became even more radiant and flawless. As a result, she began to consume tofu regularly to maintain her youthful appearance. Word spread about her beauty routine, and soon, eating tofu became popular for improving skin health in ancient China 1.

Lu You

A celebrated poet from the Song Dynasty, Lu You, wrote many poems that mentioned tofu in different contexts. One story goes that while he was traveling, he came across a tofu vendor who was sexually harassing a young woman. Lu You was outraged by this and condemned the vendor in the form of a poem. This poem not only highlighted the improper conduct of the vendor but also reminded the reader about the potential dangers of consuming tofu from unscrupulous vendors 2.

Aunt Yang

The legend of Aunt Yang revolves around the Lunar New Year, a time for family reunions and celebration in China. Aunt Yang was known for her mouth-watering tofu dishes that she would prepare for her family during their annual reunion dinner. Her culinary skills were eagerly anticipated by her loved ones and neighbors, and her tofu creations became an essential part of their Lunar New Year festivities. The story of Aunt Yang showcases the importance of tofu in Chinese culture, as it has been a traditional ingredient in family meals during special occasions like the Lunar New Year 3.

Over time, these legends and stories have contributed to the rich history and cultural significance of tofu in China. With all the various folktales, tofu has become a prominent part of Chinese cuisine, evolving into a versatile and nutritious ingredient that people from all walks of life continue to enjoy today.


  1. Tofu: How an ancient Chinese elixir became today’s ‘it’ food – CNN
  2. Tofu culture in China – China Daily
  3. Everything you need to know about tofu and how Chinese people eat it

Tofu Symbolism and Traditions

Chinese Lunar New Year

During the Chinese Lunar New Year, also known as the Spring Festival, tofu plays a significant role in the celebration’s traditional dishes. It is believed to symbolize wealth, happiness, and good fortune. A popular Chinese New Year dish is dried tofu (豆腐干; dòufǔgān), which holds cultural significance as it blesses homes with fulfillment of financial prosperity, happiness, and overall well-being1.

Fortune and Happiness

In Chinese culture, tofu is said to promote harmony, happiness, and prosperity among those who consume it. As a result, it is often used in celebratory events and gatherings, both as a symbolic food and a nutritious, protein-packed meat alternative2. Fried tofu, known as 炸豆腐 (zhá dòufǔ), represents gold, signifying wealth and abundance3.

Good Luck

Fresh tofu is associated with good luck and positive energy, making it an ideal food for Chinese Lunar New Year festivities. Tofu is often used in various dishes, symbolizing the hopes for a prosperous year ahead4. Given its status as a food that brings good fortune, it is a staple in many Chinese households during the holiday season, and its versatile nature allows it to be incorporated into a wide range of recipes.

To summarize, tofu is highly valued in Chinese culture for its symbolisms related to fortune, happiness, and good luck, especially during the Chinese Lunar New Year. Its rich symbolism and traditions have earned it a prominent place in various celebrations and daily life, reflecting the strong connection between food and culture within the Chinese community.


  1. https://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/Chinese_Customs/food_symbolism.htm
  2. https://www.britannica.com/topic/tofu
  3. https://bonappetit.com/story/types-of-tofu
  4. https://omnivorescookbook.com/tofu-in-chinese-cooking/

Health Benefits and Nutritional Content

Chinese tofu, also known as bean curd, is a versatile and nourishing food made from soybean curds. It has gained popularity worldwide, especially among those who follow plant-based, vegan diets. This food offers numerous health benefits and contains essential nutrients that contribute to overall wellness.

One of the main benefits of tofu is its high protein content. Each 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of tofu provides a significant amount of protein, making it a great option for those seeking to increase their protein intake, particularly on plant-based diets1. Tofu contains all essential amino acids, which are crucial for healthy bodily functions2.

In addition to protein, tofu offers an impressive array of vitamins and minerals that contribute to its nutritional value. Some of the essential nutrients found in tofu include:

  • Calcium: Essential for strong bones and teeth, as well as proper muscle and nerve function.
  • Iron: Crucial for the production of red blood cells and energy metabolism.
  • Manganese: Necessary for bone health, metabolism regulation, and antioxidant production.
  • Selenium: Plays a role in immune health, DNA synthesis, and thyroid function3.

Additionally, tofu is relatively low in carbohydrates and calories, making it an ideal choice for those watching their caloric intake or following low-carb diets3. Moreover, tofu is naturally gluten-free, cholesterol-free, and low in fat, which adds to its appeal as a healthy option4.

When it comes to specific health benefits, consuming tofu has been linked to improved heart health. Tofu may help lower LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) and modestly increase HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol)5. Furthermore, tofu and other soy foods are primary sources of isoflavones, which are plant-created chemicals associated with various health benefits2.

In conclusion, Chinese tofu is not only a versatile and delicious ingredient but also packed with essential nutrients and health benefits. Its high protein content, calcium, iron, and other minerals make it an excellent choice for those seeking a nutritious, plant-based food.


  1. Healthline
  2. Heart.org 2
  3. Verywellfit 2
  4. Medical News Today
  5. Health

Chinese tofu, also known as bean curd, is a versatile and protein-rich food originating from China. It is made from soy milk, water, and a coagulant, resulting in a cheese-like product that comes in varying degrees of firmness1. Tofu’s prominence is due to its nutritious nature, packed with protein, essential amino acids, and minerals.

Tofu production starts with soybeans. These beans are first ground in water before being heated to obtain soy milk2. The soy milk is then coagulated using minerals such as calcium or magnesium salts3. The curd-like substance that forms is pressed into blocks or sheets to create the variety of tofu products available.

There are several types of Chinese tofu, depending on factors such as coagulant used or the degree of firmness. Key categories include:

  • Soft tofu: With a high moisture content, soft tofu is ideal for soups, desserts, and steamed dishes.
  • Firm tofu: Denser than its counterparts, firm tofu maintains its shape and is perfect for stir-fries, grilling, or baking.
  • Extra-firm tofu: Containing the least amount of moisture, extra-firm tofu holds its structure even when subjected to high-heat cooking processes, making it suitable for frying and BBQ.

Chinese cuisine employs tofu in various ways, including stir-fries, hot pots, and cold dishes. Some popular dishes featuring Chinese tofu are:

  • Mapo tofu: A spicy and flavorful dish in which tofu is cooked with minced meat, chili bean paste, and garlic. It is often served with a side of steamed rice.
  • Tofu and vegetable stir-fry: Combining firm tofu with an assortment of vegetables such as bell peppers, mushrooms, and green beans creates a colorful and nutrient-dense meal.
  • Stinky tofu: A fermented tofu delicacy known for its distinctive smell, stinky tofu is a popular street food item typically deep-fried and served with dipping sauces.


In summary, Chinese tofu is a versatile and protein-rich food with a centuries-old history. Made from soy milk and coagulants, this ancient ingredient comes in various forms depending on firmness, making it a staple in Chinese cuisine. From comforting soups to fried street food, tofu showcases its adaptability and nutritional qualities, further solidifying its presence in dishes around the world.


  1. Everything you need to know about tofu and how Chinese people eat it
  2. Tofu – New World Encyclopedia
  3. An Introduction to Tofu in Chinese Cooking

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